More and more often I am advocating for children on the autism spectrum who are achieving at or above grade level, but whose IQ scores show them to have below average or even mentally deficient intelligence levels. The IQ score is supposed to represent a person’s ability to learn so, how could it be that a child could be learning so well but be mentally retarded?
The answer is that it can’t be; it makes no sense. New research shows that the IQ scores of children on the autism spectrum may not be accurate reflections of their innate intellectual potential. While in the past many psychologists have believed that the vast majority of children with autism had below normal intelligence, recent scientific studies have questioned it.
As it turns out, the standard IQ tests (the WISC-IV and the Stanford-Binet), which school psychologists and others often use, do not tap the true cognitive ability of many children on the autistic spectrum. According to the highly respected National Research Council, in order for an autistic child to perform to their ability on a standard IQ test, they must be able to quickly respond to verbal questions and have well developed motor skills. But if your disability by definition prevents you from doing that with the test administrator (as autism often does), you may not be able to demonstrate your true intelligence.
Some people might say “Well, if you can’t engage interpersonally, listen and express yourself, then you’re just not very smart, and you deserve the low IQ score you received.” But, the truth is that IQ tests are supposed to measure a person’s intellectual potential, and not their ability to communicate what they know to a stranger. Other people might say “Well, who cares if my child’s IQ score is inaccurately low — it might actually help me get disability benefits.”
The reason why as an advocate I care is because schools use the IQ score to place children. Often children with below average or mentally deficient IQ scores are placed in classrooms in which students are not expected to meet grade level standards (i.e. Sunshine State standards) and teachers are not held accountable under the No Child Left Behind Act for student progress. Once a child has been in that type of classroom for a few years, it becomes extremely difficult to catch up to their mainstream peers.
What Can You Do About It?
I like to give my readers practical solutions in this newsletter, and not just talk about theory. I have a few recommendations depending upon your specific circumstances:
- If your child on the autism spectrum has never had an IQ test, I do not see why you need to run out and get one. A child can be diagnosed with and treated for autism without having a traditional IQ test. And schools can legally make decisions about classroom placement without knowing your child’s IQ.
- If your child’s public school evaluates him or her for special education services, the school psychologist will often want to do an IQ test. If your child is on the spectrum and you think they might not do so well on a standard IQ test, you can either:
- Refuse to consent to any IQ test — when you sign the parental consent form authorizing the public school to evaluate your child, you could write-in that you do not agree to any IQ test. Be polite and simply say something like you “don’t believe in the IQ test –never have.” You wouldn’t be the first one to have major problems with IQ testing — it’s falling out of favor in many quarters of the field of education, including in Gifted Education;
- Refuse to consent to standard IQ tests (the WISC-IV and the Stanford Binet), but authorize the school to use other reputable IQ tests which may be more valid assessments of intellectual ability with autistic kids. Three of those other IQ tests are: i) the Raven Progressive Matrices test; ii) the Leiter International Performance Scale (your child needs to be able to communicate by gesturing for this test); and iii) the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Understand that it is not clear whether or not a parent has the legal right to tell the school district which IQ test you want administered. However, you can try this approach and see if it sticks.
- If the school insists on performing an IQ test, show them this recent “Newsweek” article which talks about the problems with giving standard IQ tests to autistic children and hope that they take heed.
- If the public school has recently evaluated your child for special education services, there will be a meeting during which the results of the evaluation are discussed. If the school psychologist administered an IQ test and you believe that the results may not be accurate, you have the legal right to request that the school district pay for a private evaluation called an “Independent Educational Evaluation.” For more information on your right to an “IEE,” look it up on www.wrightslaw.com
- If you want or need to pay for a privately administered IQ test, this article by Gary J. Heffner, M.A. has some good tips on how to best ensure a valid test administration. Some parents get a private IQ test done if they feel pretty confident that the school psychologist won’t have the time and the resources to do a good enough job with their child, yet someone they trust has recommended that one be done.
I know this is a very complicated issue and I hope I’ve shed some light on it. If you have any questions, or want to share your personal experiences with the IQ test and the school system, please send me an email or call.
UPDATE Article first published 1/7/2007.
*Isabelle Soulieres, Ph.D., post-doctoral fellow, Harvard University, Boston; Laurent Mottron, M.D., Ph.D., professor of psychiatry, University of Montreal; Brenda Smith Myles, Ph.D., chief of programs, Autism Society of America; June 2009, Human Brain Mapping.